﻿ Arithmetic Micro Operations. Registers, Accumulator AC, General purpose register R1, R2, Increment, Decrement, subtractions 2's complement, addition, 1's complement. With examples
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Arithmetic micro operations
Arithmetic operations performed on the contents of registers are categorized as arithmetic microoperations.
Lets assume three registers.
1. Accumulator register AC.
2. General purpose register R1.
3. General purpose register R2.
Following is the list of arithmetic microoperations that can be performed on the three registers.
1. Increment.
2. Decrement.
4. Binary Subtract.
5. 1’s complement.
6. 2’s complement.
7. Binary subtraction using 2’s complement addition.
Detailed discussion below:-
Detailed discussion on Arithmetic microoperations:-
Increment the contents of any of the three registers.
Some examples:-
AC = AC + 1
R1 = R1 + 1
R2 = R2 + 1

Decrement the contents of accumulator.
Some examples:-
AC = AC - 1
R1 = R1 - 1
R2 = R2 - 1

Add contents of registers R1 and R2 and transfer the sum to AC. (Binary adder circuit)
Some examples:-
AC = R1 + R2

Subtract contents of registers R1 and R2 and transfer the results to AC. (Binary adder-subtractor circuit)
Some examples:-
AC = R1 - R2
AC = AC -R1

1’s complement. (1’s complement discussion)
Some examples:-
AC = (AC)’
R1 = (R1)’
R2 =(R2)’

2’s complement. (2’s complement discussion)
Some examples:-
AC = AC’ + 1
R1 = R1’ +1
R2 = R2’ +1

Some examples:-
AC = R1 + R2’ + 1 instead of R1- R2
Resources

Clock Domain Crossing Discussion with
rtl & testbench example.

Rate change(asynchronous) FIFO design and fifo depth calculation.