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Third order Intermodulation products

Distortions in a system are represented with the help of Taylor series. Each term in Taylor series is represented as below.

F1 and f2 are the frequencies of two different inputs signals to the system.

Variable n can have any integer value

Value n=3 is of most interest because it results in signals that are very close to the desired signals

M is a variable which takes the values 0, 1, 2 and 3

m = 0, Third order distortion product =

m = 1, Third order distortion product =

m = 2, Third order distortion product =

m = 3, Third order distortion product =

Third Order Intermodulation Intercept (IP3) point discussion on next page

Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR).

Noise Factor (F).

Noise Figure (NF).

Minimum Detectable Signal (MDS).

Intermodulation (IM) distortion.

Second order intermodulation products.

Third order intermodulation products.

IP3 (Third Order Intercept) point.

Dynamic Range (DR)



Spurious outputs

Gain control


Cascade IP3 calculation

The formula to calculate the cascade IP3 is shown below:-
STG1 or Stage 1 = Gain value as Gain1 and IP3 value as IP31
STG2 or Stage 2 = Gain2, IP32
STG3 or Stage 3 = Gain3, IP33
STG4 or Stage 4 = Gain4, IP34

Final IP3 = IP3_Total