Chip Designing for ASIC/ FPGA Design engineers and Students
Digital-logic Design... Dream for many students… start learning front-end…
Get Noticed:- Submit your own content to be published on fullchipdesign.com
PLL’s or phase locked loop
The basic components of a phase-locked loop (PLL) are:
A Very accurate and stable Reference Oscillator, Phase Detector, Frequency Divider - Fractional or Integer, Voltage-Controlled oscillator (VCO), Amplifiers and Low Pass Filters.
Phase-locked loops (PLL) are crucial for modern-day electronic circuits. They are used to generate high frequency clocks from low speed clocks, phase synchronization of clocks, separate valuable signal information from noise and also used to demodulate amplitude and frequency modulated signals. The block diagram of PLL is discussed below.
Frequency Divider (Integer or Fractional)
PLL is a feedback control system to generate an output clock frequency in phase to the input reference clock frequency. In other words its a closed-loop circuit that compares its output phase with the input reference clock phase and adjusts it in steps till the phases are aligned. This alignment of phase is termed as output clock phase is locked to input clock phase. This locked in phase relationship is termed as Phase Locked Loop or PLL.
Analog PLL :-
Analog components - VCO, loop filter (active/passive), and analog multiplier or analog phase detector
Digital PLL (DPLL) :-
Digital components - Digital phase detector (such as XOR, edge-trigger,JK, phase frequency detector), optional digital divider in feedback path.
Analog components - VCO, loop filter (active/passive)
RF fundamentals discussion
Signal to Noise ratio (SNR), NoiseFactor(F), Cascaded F, NoiseFigure (NF), Dynamic Range (DR), Minimum Detectable Signal (MDS), Intermodulation (IM) distortion, Second order (IP2)
Third order (IP3) intermodulation products, IP3 (Third Order Intercept) plot,
Desensitization, Cross-modulation, Spurious outputs, Gain control, Noise
Antenna selection parameters,