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For even values of n distortion components consists of DC component.

So in case of strong distortion this component may get multiplied with the desired signal resulting in lowering of the average gain of the receiver.

Presence of a strong interference with weak signal can result in cross modulation. In this scenario the amplitude of interference gets transferred to amplitude of weak signal. This generally results in second order intermodulation components.

These are unintended signals generated by the receiver without receiving any input signal.

Gain control circuitry is used to control the quality of input signal over a wide range of input signal levels.

Main source of noises

Thermal Noise (N= kTB):

This kind of noise is generated in resistors due to agitation of charge carriers. This random generation of current due to agitation of charge carriers results in random voltage which causes thermal noise.

Shot Noise:

There are primarily two conditions which causes Shot noises in the system.

Potential barrier over which charge carriers hop

Direct current

1/f Noise (Flicker noise)

Barkhausen Noise (Specific to magnetic materials)

Radio Receive characterization

Digital Logic fundamentals topics @ fcd

Digital basics tutorial

Binary number discussion, 1 and 2 complement discussion,

Binary arithmetic, Signed Magnitude, overflow, examples

Gray coding, Binary coded digital (BCD) coding, BCD addition

Digital logic gates basic (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) and derived (NAND, NOR and XNOR). Drive XOR from NAND gates. Drive XOR from NOR gates

Discussion of Boolean Algebra with examples.

Duality Principle, Huntington Postulates, Theorems of Boolean Algebra - discussion with examples, Boolean Functions, Canonical and Standard Forms, Minterms and Maxterms

Sum of Minterms, Product of Maxterms or Canonical Forms,

Karnaugh map or K-map discussion 2, 3, ,4 and 5 var’s

Prime Implicant and Gate level minimization examples.

Digital basics tutorial

Binary number discussion, 1 and 2 complement discussion,

Binary arithmetic, Signed Magnitude, overflow, examples

Gray coding, Binary coded digital (BCD) coding, BCD addition

Digital logic gates basic (AND, OR, XOR, NOT) and derived (NAND, NOR and XNOR). Drive XOR from NAND gates. Drive XOR from NOR gates

Discussion of Boolean Algebra with examples.

Duality Principle, Huntington Postulates, Theorems of Boolean Algebra -

Karnaugh map or K-

Prime Implicant and Gate level minimization examples.